Retrieved 19 December Portuguese Ceylon Sri Lanka. From December through April, the country experiences drought.
Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabuas well as part of the Mali Empire. Parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century, while a few others were under some rule by the Portuguese Empire since the 16th century. In the 15th century, it was colonized as Portuguese Guinea. Guinea-Bissau has a history of political instability since independence, and no elected president has successfully served a full five-year term.
There are diverse religions in Guinea-Bissau with no one religion having a majority. Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabupart of the Mali Empire ; parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century. Other parts of the territory in the current country were considered by the Portuguese as part of their empire.
Although the rivers and coast of this area were among the first places colonized by the Portuguese, who set up trading posts in the 16th century, they did not explore the interior until the 19th century. The local African rulers in Guinea, some of whom prospered greatly from the slave tradecontrolled the inland trade and did not allow the Europeans into the interior.
They kept them in the fortified coastal settlements where the trading took place. The Portuguese in Guinea were largely restricted to the ports of Bissau and Cacheu. For a brief period in the s, the British tried to establish a rival foothold on an offshore island, at Bolama. Independence was unilaterally declared on 24 September Some escaped to settle in Portugal or other African nations.
The country was controlled by a revolutionary council until The first multi-party elections were held in In Septembera military coup was conducted. A mutiny of military factions in October resulted in the death of the head of the armed forces and caused widespread unrest. Despite reports of arms entering the country prior to the election and some "disturbances during campaigning," including 10 коп 1996 года цена украина on government offices by unidentified gunmen, foreign election monitors described the election overall as "calm and organized".
Three years later, PAIGC won a strong parliamentary majority, with 67 of seats, in the parliamentary election held in November On 2 Marchhowever, Vieira was assassinated by what preliminary reports indicated to be a group of soldiers avenging the death of the head of joint chiefs of staff, General Batista Tagme Na Waiwho had been killed in an explosion the day before.
National Assembly Speaker Raimundo Pereira was appointed as an interim president until a nationwide election on 28 June Guinea-Bissau is a republic. In the past, the government had been highly centralized. Multi-party governance was not established until mid The president is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. Sinceno president has successfully served a full five-year term.
They are popularly elected from multi-member constituencies to serve a four-year term. There are more than 20 minor parties. Guinea-Bissau follows a nonaligned foreign policy and seeks friendly and cooperative relations with a wide variety of states and organizations. These, in turn, are subdivided into 37 Sectors.
Guinea-Bissau is bordered by Senegal to the north and Guinea bissau the south and east, with the Atlantic Ocean to its west. The terrain of is mostly low coastal plain with swamps of Guinean mangroves rising to Guinean forest-savanna mosaic in the east. The Bijagos Archipelago lies off of the mainland.
Guinea-Bissau is warm all year around and there is little temperature fluctuation; it averages The average rainfall for Bissau is 2, millimetres From December through April, the country experiences drought. Severe environmental issues include deforestation ; soil erosion; overgrazing and overfishing. More than two-thirds of the population lives below the poverty line.
A long санкт петербургский монетный двор of political instability has resulted in depressed economic activity, deteriorating social conditions, and increased macroeconomic imbalances. It takes longer on average to register a new business in Guinea-Bissau days or about 33 weeks than in any other country in the world except Suriname.
Guinea-Bissau has started to republica some economic advances after a pact of stability was signed by the main political parties of the country, leading to an IMF -backed structural reform program. After several years of economic downturn and political instability, inGuinea-Bissau entered the CFA franc monetary system, guine about some internal monetary stability. Following the parliamentary elections in March and presidential elections in Julythe country is trying to recover from the long period of instability, despite a still-fragile political situation.
Beginning arounddrug traffickers based in Latin America began to use Guinea-Bissau, along with several neighboring West African nations, as a transshipment point to Europe for cocaine. The proportion of the population below the age of 15 in was The population of Guinea-Bissau is ethnically diverse and has many distinct languages, customs, and social structures.
Portuguese natives comprise a very small percentage of Bissau-Guineans. After Guinea-Bissau gained independence, most of the Portuguese nationals left the country. The country has a tiny Chinese population. Main cities in Guinea-Bissau include: Despite being a small country Guinea-Bissau has several ethnic groups which are very distinct from each other, with their own cultures and languages.
This is due that Guinea-Bissau was a refugee territory due to migrations within Africa. Colonization and miscegenation brought Portuguese and the Portuguese creole, the Kriol or crioulo. Although perceived as one of the national languages of Guinea-Bissau since independence, Standard Portuguese is spoken mostly as a second language, with few native speakers and often confined to the intellectual and political elites.
It is the language of government and national communication as a legacy of colonial rule. The Creole is still expanding, and it is understood by the vast majority of the population. However, decreolization processes are occurring, due to undergoing interference from Standard Portuguese and the creole forms a continuum of varieties with the standard language, the most distant are basilects and the closer ones, acrolects.
The remaining rural population speaks a variety of native African languages unique to each ethnicity: Ethnic African languages are not discouraged, in any situation, despite their lower prestige. These languages are the link between individuals of the same ethnic background and daily used in villages, between neighbors or friends, traditional and religious ceremonies, and also used in contact between the urban and rural populations.
However, none of these languages are dominant in Guinea-Bissau. Guinea-Bissau is a full member of the Francophonie. However, many residents practice syncretic forms of Islamic and Christian faiths, combining their practices with traditional African beliefs. The Roman Catholic Church claims most of the Christian community.
The WHO estimates there are fewer than 5 physicians perpersons in the country,  down from 12 perin The prevalence of HIV-infection 1 urn монета фото the adult population is 1. Despite lowering rates in surrounding countries, cholera rates were reported in November to be on the rise, with 1, cases reported and nine deaths.
A cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau affected 14, people and killed The maternal mortality rate perbirths for Guinea Bissau was This compares with The under-5 mortality rate, per 1, births, was and the neonatal mortality as a percentage стоимость 5 копеек 1916 года under-5 mortality was The number of midwives per 1, live births was 3; one out of eighteen pregnant women die as a result of pregnancy.
Education is compulsory from the age of 7 to Pre-school education for 5000 рублей 1992 between three and six years of age is optional and in its early stages. There are five levels of education: Basic education is under reform, and now forms a single cycle, comprising 6 years of education.
Secondary education is widely available and there are two cycles 7th to 9th classe and 10th to 11th classe. Higher education is limited and most prefer to be educated abroad, with students preferring to enroll in Portugal. Child labor is very common. Inthe gross primary enrollment rate was Non-formal education is centered on community schools and the teaching of adults. Usually, the many different ethnic groups in Guinea-Bissau coexist peacefully, but when conflicts do erupt, they tend to revolve around access to land.
However, civil unrest and other factors have combined over the years to keep gumbe, and other genres, out of mainstream audiences, even in generally syncretist African countries. The calabash is the primary musical instrument of Guinea-Bissau,  and is used in extremely swift and rhythmically complex dance music.
Lyrics are almost always in Guinea-Bissau Creolea Portuguese -based creole languageand are often humorous and topical, revolving around current events and controversies. Rice is a staple in the diet of residents near the coast and millet a staple in the interior. Fruits and vegetables are commonly eaten along with cereal grains.
The Portuguese encouraged peanut production. Vigna subterranea Bambara groundnut and Macrotyloma geocarpum Hausa groundnut are also grown. Black-eyed peas are also part of the diet. Palm oil is harvested. Common dishes include soups and stews. Common ingredients include yamssweet potatocassavaonion, tomato and plantain. Spices, peppers and chilis are used in cooking, including Aframomum melegueta seeds Guinea pepper.
Flora Gomes is an internationally renowned film director; his most famous film is Nha Fala English: Mortu Nega is in Creole with English subtitles. Football is the most popular sport in Guinea-Bissau. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.Guiné-Bissau, oficialmente República da Guiné-Bissau, é um país da África Ocidental que faz fronteira com o Senegal ao norte, Guiné ao sul e ao leste e com o Oceano Atlântico a oeste. O território guineense abrange quilómetros quadrados de área, com uma população estimada de 1,6 milhão de pessoas.Portal:Guiné-Bissau · Crioulo da Guiné-Bissau · Geografia da Guiné-Bissau. listen)), officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (Portuguese: República da Guiné-Bissau [ʁeˈpublikɐ dɐ ɡiˈnɛ biˈsaw]), is a country in West Africa. It covers 36, square kilometres (13, sq mi) with an estimated population of 1,, Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, as well as part of the José Mário Vaz · Balanta people · Portuguese Guinea · Guinea-Bissau Creole. Por isso, agindo como intérprete fiel da vontade do povo e no exercício das responsabilidades que lhe cabem como órgão máximo da soberania, a Assembleia Nacional Popular aprova e adopta, como lei fundamental e para vigorar a partir de 16 de Maio de , a presente Constituição da. República da Guiné-Bissau.